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快思考慢思考:像马云一样有钱,也不一定能做好这些事?

DannyData小丹尼 · 2020-06-16
思考,快与慢阅读延伸

编者按:本文来自微信公众号“DannyData小丹尼”(ID:dannyteam),作者:小丹尼,36氪经授权发布。

中国有句古话叫“有钱能使鬼推磨”,这就造成了很多人认为“金钱是万能的”,其实网上标题党们最爱拿钱吸引眼球了,比如什么1亿实盘、3亿豪宅等等,那你们觉得“金钱真的是万能的吗?”

There is an old Chinese saying that "money makes the mare to go", misleading many people into thinking that "money is everything". Clickbait writers love to use “money” in headlines as an eye-catching point, like “100 million RMB firm offer”, “300 million luxury house”, etc. Do you guys agree that "money is everything"?

就因为人总喜欢“向钱看”,所以市面上总会有这种声音:“马云和比尔盖茨退休搞慈善,不就是想要变相转移财富不交税吗?他俩这么有钱,想搞慈善还不容易?”

Just because people always like to look to the money, there will always be this kind of view saying that: "Jack Ma and Bill Gates started charity work after their retirement, simply aiming at transferring wealth without paying taxes. They're so rich that it’d be super easy for them to do charity work.”

尤其是疫情爆发时期,比尔盖茨一直是西方勇于讲出病毒真相的人之一,可以说是川建国最讨厌的人之一了,所以比尔盖茨被各种老外骂是阴谋论,骂得连比尔盖茨自己都说“心累了”。

During the outbreak of the epidemic, Bill Gates has been one of the brave people in the West to tell the truth about the virus, and he can be said as one of the people that Trump hates most. Bill Gates was blamed for “his conspiracy” by foreign netizens, so much so that even Bill Gates himself said: "I feel terrible".

那么金钱真的是万能的吗?有钱就能搞好慈善吗?

Is money really everything? Is money the only key to success charity work?

这里明确说出我的观点:因为“金钱不是万能的”,所以不是有钱就可以搞好慈善的。

Here's my point of view: Money talks to some extent, and it is one element of charity work.

我是小丹尼,谈车说科技。偶尔跑跑题,你也别介意。本集视频论据仍然遵循我的标准:随你反驳。

I'm Danny. I talk about tech and cars and sometimes talk about something else, hope you don't mind. As usual, all information used in my video is authentic and first-hand. You’re welcome to disagree with my arguments.

01 钱不是万能的

为什么我说“金钱不是万能的”?

Why do I state that "money is not everything"?

举个例子你就明白了。就拿献血这件事来说,你认为“无偿献血”的人多,还是“有偿献血”的人多呢?

I'll use an example to explain. Taking the case of blood donation, do you think more people donate blood without or with compensation?

我来公布一下答案,耶鲁大学的一项实验证明:如果把“无偿献血”改为“有偿献血”,反倒会让献血的人数减少37%。

Let me present the answer. An experiment by Yale University proved that changing the term "voluntary blood donation" to "compensated blood donation" would reduce the number of donors by 37%.

其实这个很好理解,那些“无偿献血”的同学会这样想:“本来我献血是为了献爱心的,你却把我这献爱心行为搞成个商业行为?难道我这血祭才值这么俩钱?老子不献了,下次一定!”

This is very easy to understand. Those who donate blood for free will think: "I originally gave blood for pure charity, but you turned my donation into a commercial act? Does my blood sacrifice worth only that much? I just quit!"

估计这里会有人反驳我了,小丹尼你说“有偿献血”的人不够多,那是钱没给到位。

Well, I guess some people may disagree with me here. Danny, when you claimed "there aren't many compensated blood donors", that's because the compensation is not enough.

好吧,你说得可能也对,毕竟咱聊的是公益行为而不是商业行为,况且血的买卖交易行为也不合法,那我们再换个例子:

Well, you're probably right. We're talking about public service not commercial act after all, let alone it's not legal to trade blood. So let's take another example.

咱们国人对各种旅游景点的垃圾绝不陌生,再给大家来个测试,为了避免游客乱扔垃圾,景区的区长立一个警示牌:扔垃圾者罚款10元!或者在门票上收取游客10块钱所谓的“垃圾处理费”,你认为区长这么做,会让游客扔垃圾变多了,还是变少了呢?

We're familiar with the trash in the tourist attraction spots. Let's try this test first. To prevent tourists from littering, the manager may set up a warning sign saying "Littering is fined 10 yuan!" or charge tourists 10 RMB as "garbage disposal fee". Do you think the littering will increase or decrease?

这种现象大家见得太多了,但结果是什么大家也都清楚,景区垃圾照样是随处可见,因为很多游客会想:“10块钱老子还是能交得起的,老子吃鸡时是专业伏地魔,我偷偷扔你还想逮到我?”或者“老子的垃圾处理费都交了,不扔白不扔啊!”

This is quite common, and you know the result. Garbage still can be seen everywhere in the tourist attraction spots. Many tourists may think: "10 yuan is not a big deal. I’m so good at hiding in PUBG, don’t even think of catching me if I do it secretly." or "Given that I have already paid the garbage disposal fee, just litter or waste the money! "

那么如何解决这个问题呢?我将在结尾给出答案。

So how to solve the problem? I will give the answer at the end of this video.

好吧,现在你懂我说的了吧,钱绝对不是万能的,很多事情绝不是靠砸钱就能搞定的,根本原因是人性问题。

Well, now you should understand why I said that money is definitely not everything. Cash burn is not a solution to many problems. The fundamental problem is human nature.

02 快思考和慢思考

到底是什么人性问题呢?这里我们要引入一个概念“快思考”和“慢思考”,来自心理学家Keith Stanovich和Richard West首先提出:大脑中存在两套系统进行“行为决策”,后来普林斯顿大学的教授Daniel Kahneman将理论延伸发展,称为“快思考”和“慢思考”。

So what is the problem of human nature? Here I’m going to introduce the concept of "quick thinking" and "slow thinking", which was first introduced by the psychologists Keith Stanovich and Richard West: there are two "behavioral decision-making" systems in human brains. Later, Professor Daniel Kahneman of Princeton University developed the theory into "thinking fast and slow".

什么是“快思考”和“慢思考”呢?

What are "quick thinking" and "slow thinking"?

“快思考”指的是依靠直觉和情感,不怎么费力、几乎无意识的状态。比如街边大爷的回答什么冬梅、马什么梅、马冬什么。

"Quick thinking" refers to a state of mind that relies on intuition and emotion, which is effortless and almost unconscious. For example, a passer-by’s direct answer to the question of one’s name: …Donemei, Ma … Mei, Madong…. 

而“慢思考”指的是需要严谨的逻辑行为,费脑力,专注的状态。比如时间管理、新年计划、工作安排甘特图等等。

"Slow thinking" involves rigorous logical analysis, deliberation, and focus, which can be found in time management, New Year's plan, work schedule using Gantt chart, etc.

再给你出两个小测验你就明白了,其实我们每个人都是有“快思考”和“慢思考”的。

Let me give you two tests to help you understand. In fact, each of us can think fast and slowly.

测试一:假如一个球拍和一个乒乓球总共是11元,球拍比乒乓球贵10元,那么一个乒乓球多少钱?

Test one: A ping-pong bat and a ball cost 11 yuan in total. The bat costs 10 yuan more than the ball. How much is the ball?

我估计很多同学反应很快,立刻给出答案:“乒乓球1块钱!”

I guess many of you will respond quickly and give the answer immediately: "1 yuan!"

这时你就使用了“快思考”,大家要好好审题“贵10元”,所以正确答案应该是“乒乓球5毛钱”,而乒乓球拍是10块5毛钱,总共才是11块钱。如果这道题你答对了,说明你使用了“慢思考”。

In this case, you used "fast thinking". Let’s review the question carefully: "The bat costs 10 yuan more than the ball", so the correct answer is "50 cents", and the bat is 10.5 yuan, totaling 11 yuan. If you answered this question correctly, you have used a method of "slow thinking".

答错的同学也不用气馁,说实话第一次看这问题时我也答错了,而且这个测试有上万名美国大学生都答错了,其结果令人震惊,在哈佛大学、麻省理工大学和普林斯顿大学中,53%的学生给出了错误答案。

Don’t be discouraged if you made the wrong answer. To be honest, I also failed the test for the first time. More surprisingly, over ten thousand of American college students made the wrong answer. Even 53% of students from Harvard, MIT, and Princeton University, gave the wrong answer.

虽然我当年没考上哈佛、麻省理工和普林斯顿大学,但我可以和他们一样答错问题呀,我终于找到了我和学霸们的相似之处了。

Although I didn’t get into Harvard, MIT, or Princeton University, I made the same mistake as the students there did. I finally found the similarity between me and the excellent students.

再给你们来第二个测试:如果5部机器制造5件产品需要5分钟,那么100部机器同时制造100件产品需要多长时间?

Now let's try the second test: If it takes 5 machines 5 minutes to make 5 widgets, how long would it take 100 machines to make 100 widgets?

目测这次答对的同学要比上一个测试多很多了,你可能会变得更加谨慎,不会再脱口而出答案“100分钟!”

I guess much more of you can get the right answer this time. You may become more cautious and will not blurt out "100 minutes!"

恭喜你学会不抢答了,这次你使用了更多的“慢思考”,正确答案是5分钟。

Congratulations on learning not to rush to answer. This time you are thinking more slowly. The correct answer is 5 minutes.

好吧,如果这次还有同学脱口而出“100分钟!” ,估计你的数学是体育老师教的,如果你现在还没有反应过来,那只需要考虑一个类似问题:张三的妈妈生了张三,需要10个月。那么10个张三的妈妈同时生10个张三,需要多长时间呢?答案还是10个月,而不是100个月。

Well, if there are mates still blurting out "100 minutes!", it is estimated that your math is taught by your PE teacher. If you haven't comprehended what had happened yet, you only need to think about this similar problem. John ’s mother spent 10 months to give birth to him. So how long does it take 10 mothers to give birth to 10 babies respectively at the same time? The answer is still 10 months, not 100 months.

这里估计要有小朋友问了:“难道‘慢思考’就一定比‘快思考’好吗?”

Is "slow thinking" necessarily better than "fast thinking"?

那也不一定,学开车就是一个从“慢思考”逐渐升级到“快思考”的过程。

No really, learning to drive is a gradual upgrade from "slow thinking" to "fast thinking".

学开车刚开始就是一个“慢思考”的过程,比如你需要非常专注学习如何挂挡、踩离合、踩刹车、看后视镜等等,驾校师傅脾气不好其实就是看你“慢思考”干着急。

Learning to drive is a "slow thinking" process at the beginning. You need to concentrate on learning how to gear, use clutch and brake, look in the rearview mirror, etc. The bad temper of the driving school teacher is actually the anxiety that arose by your "slow thinking".

当你成为了老司机,你的很多反应就会升级为“快思考”:比如看见行人,直觉就会告诉你应该踩刹车;错道时,第一反应就是打转向灯、看后视镜等等,当然我说的这是老司机的理想状况啊,反正我知道很多北京老司机的“快思考”是变道先插了再说。

When you become an experienced driver, many of your immediate reactions will become "fast thinking". For example, when you see a passerby, your instinct will lead you to brake. When changing lanes, the immediate reaction is to turn on the cornering lamp, look at the rearview mirror, and so on. Of course, this is the ideal operation for experienced drivers. Anyway, I observed that the "fast thinking" of many sophisticated Beijing drivers is to change lanes first.

好了,这下你应该搞懂“快思考”和“慢思考”的区别了,而且你也知道了有时候我们需要“快思考”,有时候需要“慢思考”。

Now you probably understand the difference between "fast thinking" and "slow thinking", and you also know that sometimes we need "fast thinking" and sometimes "slow thinking".

03 用恰当方式解决问题

估计小朋友还会问:“搞懂‘快思考’和‘慢思考’,除了可以回答小丹尼的脑筋急转弯,还有什么用呢?”

Some of you may ask that in addition to answering Danny’s brain-teasers, what is the point of "fast thinking" and "slow thinking"?

让你们回答我的脑筋急转弯当然不是我的目的了,更重要的是要用“快思考”的方法解决“快思考”的问题,用“慢思考”的方法解决“慢思考”的问题;你不能用“快思考”的方法解决“慢思考”的问题,也不能用“慢思考”的方法解决“快思考”的问题。

It's not my purpose to let you answer my brain-teasers. It is more important to solve the problem in the right way. That is, you cannot use the "fast thinking" method to solve the "slow thinking" method and you cannot use the "slow thinking" method to solve the "fast thinking" problem.

这顺口溜说得我快喘不过气了,毕竟不是专业相声演员。举个例子你就明白了。

This made me feel breathless, after all, I am not a professional comedian. I'll use examples to illustrate my point.

先说第一点,不能用“快思考”的方法,解决“慢思考”的问题。

First, you cannot use the "fast thinking" method to solve the "slow thinking" problem.

你可以简单理解为,你不能用“刷抖音”的心态去看DannyData的视频,因为人在“刷抖音”时的状态往往是“快思考”,三秒钟你不给我来个笑点,老子就给你刷过去了。但看DannyData的视频往往需要“慢思考”,如果你带着“刷抖音”的心态去看DannyData视频,肯定会觉得小丹尼“废话太多”或“抖包袱水平太差”。

This means that you can't watch DannyData's video with the same mentality when watching Tik Tok short videos, because most people are in the "fast thinking" mode when swiping Tik Tok. If you don’t give me a punchline in three seconds, I will swipe it up without hesitation. Watching DannyData often requires "slow thinking". If you watch DannyData with the same mentality as watching Tik Tok, you will definitely feel that Danny talks too much nonsense and too few punchlines.

类似的,以前我在米兰参观达芬奇博物馆,展品如此精彩,充分展示了达芬奇的“慢思考”,我在之前文章《假如达芬奇来到今天,会不会成为当代乔布斯?》里详细描述过,感兴趣可以去翻。但可惜的是,达芬奇博物馆非常冷清,没什么人进来逛,

Similarly, I visited the Da Vinci Museum in Milan before. Those brilliant exhibits fully illustrated Da Vinci's "slow thinking." I talked more details about it in my previous article, "If Da Vinci Comes Today, Will He Become a Contemporary Steve Jobs?",and you can read it if interested. Unfortunately, the Da Vinci Museum is very deserted with few people visit.

反倒是博物馆旁边的奢侈品一条街却人山人海,可能因为大部分去米兰的游客,也不是为了专注和烧脑吧,而是为了放松和血拼。如果你抱着放松和血拼的心态来参观达芬奇博物馆,肯定会觉得达芬奇这些手稿和模型,远没有米兰大街花里胡哨的奢侈品过瘾。

On the contrary, the luxury street next to the museum is crowded. Perhaps most tourists who visit Milan plan not to focus and learn something but to relax and go shopping. If you visit the Da Vinci Museum with a relaxing attitude, you will consider that these manuscripts and models of Da Vinci are dull and boring compared with the fancy luxury goods of Milan Avenue.

再说第二点,你不能用“慢思考”的方法,解决“快思考”的问题。

Move on the second point, you can’t use the "slow thinking" method to solve the "fast thinking" problem.

你同样可以简单理解为,你不能用看DannyData视频的心态去刷抖音,本来刷的就是个乐呵,你也别指望能学习到太多知识,事实上我自己也喜欢没事在抖音上刷刷猫猫狗狗开心麻花啥的,开心就完事了。

You can also interpret it as that you can't keep the mentality of watching DannyData videos to browse Tik Tok. Swiping Tik Tok is just for fun. You don't expect to learn too much knowledge. I’d like to swipe Tik Tok to see those cats, dogs, and Mahua FunAge. Momentary happiness is enough.

当然,学会用“快思考”的方法解决“快思考”的问题,也能应用在其他生活案例上。

Of course, applying the "fast thinking" method to solve the "fast thinking" problem can also be useful in other life cases.

比如口香糖为什么总放在超市的收银台旁边?

For example, why is chewing gum always displayed next to the cash register in the supermarket?

因为口香糖并不是生活的必需品,是冲动型“快思考”的消费产品,所以需要“快思考”的刺激方法,消费者拿到后就能很快完成结账。

This is because chewing gum is not a necessity in daily life but an impulsive "fast thinking" consumer product. Therefore, a stimulating method of "fast thinking" is required, and consumers can quickly complete the checkout once they get it.

再比如英国的BIT(行为洞察组)致力于用行为经济学工具帮助政府提升公共服务水平,比如协助英国机动车执照局减少车辆税拖欠情况。

Another example is the UK's BIT (Behavioural Insight Team) devoted to using behavioral economics tools to help the government improve public service, such as assisting the UK Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency to reduce vehicle tax arrears.

车主缴纳税款,大多数人都是一种“快思考”:不需要太多的评估、横向对比等等。这个不像买手机。

Most of the car owners pay their taxes using a "fast thinking" method: they don't need too many assessments, horizontal comparisons, etc. That is not like buying a mobile phone.

最早的情况是,政府通过向欠税车主发“催缴通知书”,而“催缴通知书”都是使用繁琐的法律语言,典型的“慢思考”刺激方式,如:“纳税人、扣缴义务人应按税法规定的期限及时足额缴纳应纳税款,以完全彻底地履行应尽的纳税义务...”

The original situation was that the government issued a "notification letter" to the people who owe vehicle taxes, and that letter used complex legal language. That is a typical "slow thinking" stimulus method, such as:"Taxpayers, withholding obligations shall pay the tax payable in full and on timein accordance with the period prescribed by the law, in order to fully and completely fulfill the tax obligations due..."

BIT进行了实验,将繁琐的法律语言,改为“快思考”的刺激方式:配上了车辆照片,采用更直接的语言——“不纳税,就收车!”

BIT run an experiment where they changed the complex legal language into a "fast thinking" stimulus by using a photo of the car and more understandable language——"Pay your tax or lose your car!"

结果显示,在“快思考”改进版本的“催缴通知书”发出后,主动缴费人数上升了20%。

The results showed that after sending the revised letters that using the "fast thinking" method, the number of people who paid their taxes increased by 20%.

好了,回到我在视频开头的问题,如何能让游客们少扔垃圾呢?

Now, referring back to the question from the beginning: how to make tourists litter less?

不用跟他们啰嗦太多,直接用“快思考”的方式就完事了,比如:“扔垃圾,就拘留!”

Just simply use the "fast thinking" method and using phrases like:"Arrest if you litter!"

事实上去过新加坡的同学都知道,为什么新加坡的环境这么干净?其实就是因为新加坡政府对不文明的行为有特别严厉果断的处罚,在新加坡,乱丢垃圾、吐痰等行为最高可处10000新币的罚款,一般都在300新币以上,折合人民币差不多1400元以上的罚款,屡教不改和情节严重的还要处以更严重的刑罚。

In fact, anyone who has visited Singapore would know the reason why the streets there are so clean. The truth is that Singapore's government is strict with any savage behaviors such as throwing garbage or spitting on the street. All these behaviors will be penalized, and the highest could reach ten thousand SGD, and the lowest is around 300 SGD, which is approximately 1400 RMB. If you are caught multiple times, the penalty could be even worse.

好了,今天我讲了“金钱不是万能的”、“快思考”和“慢思考”、以及如何在生活中用“快思考”的方法解决“快思考”的问题、用“慢思考”的方法解决“慢思考”的问题。

To summarize, today I talked about "money is not everything", "thinking fast and slow", as well as using intuition to solve "fast thinking" problems and using logic to solve "slow thinking" problems.

类似的,我们不只需要在现实生活中需要学会“慢思考”,在互联网上看消息和发表自己观点的时候,更需要“慢思考”。

Similarly, we not only need to learn "slow thinking" in daily life but also use it when surfing on the Internet, expressing our opinions, and viewing other people's comments. 

现在互联网上的舆论存在太多的“反转剧情”了,有些比大片还要精彩,每次剧情的反转其实都是一伙别有用心的人带领一大帮“快思考”的吃瓜群众,看热闹不怕事大。

Nowadays, there are too many "reversal plots" on the Internet and some of which are even better than Hollywood blockbusters. Every time the plot is reversed, it is actually a group of people with ulterior motives who lead a large group of "fast thinking" people to watch the troubles stirring up.

而且我们每个人在网上其实都是带着一副面具在说话,包括你们在DannyData视频里看到的小丹尼,哪怕我再想在网上表现真实的自我,但其实也会和真实世界里的我有很大差距,比如你们别看我在这里经常跟你们瞎白呼,但真实世界里的我并没有那么爱说话,也没那么健谈。所以你们不需要把自己在互联网上看到的任何人想象得太好或太坏,包括我在内,就是凡夫俗子一个。

Moreover, every one of us is talking with a mask, including the Danny that you see in DannyData videos. Although I did try hard to show the real me in my videos, you will still feel that I'm not the same person when meeting me in real life. For example,now you see me keep talking for a while, but in real life, I'm actually not that talkative. So please don't imagine anyone you see on the internet as a good or bad guy, including me, I'm just an ordinary person.

最后,以我很喜欢的《乌合之众》的一句话作为结尾:

Last, I'd like to close with a quote from the book The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind:

“昨天受群众拥戴的英雄一旦失败,今天就会受到侮辱。当然名望越高,反应就会越强烈。”

"The hero whom the crowd acclaimed yesterday is insulted today should he have been overtaken by failure. The reaction, indeed, will be the stronger in proportion as the prestige has been great. " 

现在你可以想想,这种“失败的英雄”在互联网上是否大量存在呢?不用我多说你们也都知道有谁了吧,所以我从来不想当“英雄”,更不想当“失败的英雄”,平时和我的同路人观众们聊聊天就行了。

Now, do you recall many of those "failed heroes" on the Internet? Well, I guess everyone can name three. So I never want to become a "hero", especially not a "failed hero". I just want to build a relationship and communicate with those who share the same value.

如果你觉得我说的对你有帮助,别忘了帮我点赞三连,我是小丹尼,谈车说科技,Techs Never Die,回见。

If this video is useful to you, don't forget to like the video and my channel. I'mDanny, I talk about tech and cars. Techs Never Die, see you next time.

文稿/校对:小丹尼、Emma

剪辑/视觉:罗兆吉、Alex、赵忠彦、宁新茹、吕晓彬、雷杰

播讲:小丹尼

翻译:Xuyang、嘉瑶、杨墨、韩子菲、施震

排版:Xuyang

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